Rare Gynecologic Cancers

The female genital tract is formed by the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix (neck of the uterus), vagina, and vulva.

The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ where a baby develops. It is formed by a layer of smooth muscle and an inner lining of epithelial cells, called the endometrium.

The cervix is the narrowing of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina, and it is lined by layers of squamous cells.

The fallopian tubes connect the uterus to the ovaries, and are the area where the egg will be fertilized by sperm. The fallopian tubes are also lined by epithelial cells, similarly to the uterus.

The role of the ovaries is to produce and release eggs, which can then travel into the fallopian tubes to be fertilized, before continuing on to the uterus to implant and develop into a fetus. The ovaries also make hormones that promote the functioning of the female reproductive organs. The ovaries are made up of the cortex, which is a layer of cells that give support to the follicles, and the membrana granulosa, which is where the eggs develop.

The vagina and the vulva are the external genitals, and they are formed by layers of squamous cells that will mostly give rise to cancers associated with that type of tissue (squamous cell carcinoma).


Information taken from WebMD.